1. You can substitute with whole wheat flour if you wish. You may need to adjust the water quantity so start with 3/4 cup and work up from there, 1 tbsp at a time.
2. Different brands and qualities of flour will have minor differences in absorbency. Start with 1 cup of water, as per the recipe. Then adjust as required until the dough is right - it should be smooth and elastic, not sticky or crumble.
3. This works with leftover or freshly cooked mashed potato. With the leftover mashed potato, make sure that it isn't really runny mashed potato (i.e. like the really creamy French mashed potato which has loads of cream in it). You can also use roasted potatoes - just mash it up with a fork. The golden crunchy parts will add flavour into the filing.
4. You can substitute the potato with other mashed vegetables or soft cooked vegetables like broccoli. The vegetables just need to be cut into a small dice and cooked until soft so they can be "squashed" into shape when rolled out.
5. Ginger is optional - I often leave it out because I don't have it. Do not substitute with garlic (too sharp - doesn't cook out) or ground ginger (it doesn't "meld" into the Filling because the Filling does not get cooked).
6. Garam Masala is a spice mix and it is to Indian cooking what soy sauce is to Asian cooking. If you don't have this, you can substitute with the following: 1 1/2 tsp ground cumin + 1/2 tsp ground coriander + pinch of cardamon powder + pinch of cinnamon + pinch of nutmeg + good grind of black pepper.
If you don't have all those spices, just use the ones you have. As long as you at least have cumin + coriander + one of the other spices listed, you will still get the essence of Garam Masala (and it will still be very tasty!)
7. Ajwain/ Carom Seeds are used in Indian cooking and it tastes like thyme. If you don't have either of these options, you can substitute with one of the following: 3/4 tsp cumin seeds, 3/4 tsp caraway seeds, 1/2 tsp oregano + good grind of pepper.
8. Chili powder in India and Australia (where I live) is different to chili powder in America! American chili powder is mixed with all sorts of other flavourings, it is not just ground dried chili. The chili powder in this recipe is ground chili, not American chili. It adds heat to the Filling. You can use American chili powder if you want, but you might want to increase the amount to achieve the spice that is synonymous with Indian food. Or substitute with cayenne pepper.
9. Nutrition per serving.